Most Ford enthusiasts are well
aware of the 351 Cleveland engine, and its short, but
well known, history. However there is confusion regarding
the 351M and 400 engines.
The 351M and 400 engines were derived from the 351C, and
are all considered part of Fords "335 series"
The 400 engine was developed in in 1970 in response to
the increase in pollution control measures placed on auto
manufacturers. Big and heavy cars were still the fad,
but the traditional Ford powerplants, such as the 390
and 460, could not meet the new emissions requirements.
Ford needed a "go between" engine, something
with more displacement than the Cleveland, but not as
much as the 385 series motors. Ford also needed an engine
that could be used in trucks and large vehicles, and utilize
their existing heavy-duty transmissions. The 351C would
not work due to its small-block "Windsor" bellhousing
Engineers took the Cleveland motor as a starting point
and modified it in several ways:
Bellhousing pattern same as 429/460 (to allow use
of already existing heavy-duty transmissions.
Main journal diameter increased by 0.25" to 3.00"
for greater bearing surface area (incidentally, same
as a 351W)
Crank stroke increased from 3.50" to 4.00"
to gain 50 cid.
Deck height increased from 9.206" to 10.297"
accommodate larger stroke
New intake manifold for wider deck.
Heads are identical in design to 351-2V, but have larger
chambers to reduce compression, may also have air injection
Different harmonic balancer and flexplate than 351C
Same block as 400, but crank is back to 3.50"
Pistons have thicker compression height to maintain
compression a 8.2:1 in the tall deck.
Different harmonic balancer than 400
Production of the 400 and 351M engines ceased in the
early 80's, as oil prices began to sky rocket and federal
EPA regulations became stricter. Ford turned to its
Windsor series engines as the primary V8 options for
passenger cars and trucks.